||An attack on the character of the individual or the opponent rather than his or her actual arguments or qualifications
||"Sam Smith divorced his loving wife of ten years. How could he be qualified to be mayor?"
||An emotional appeal to positive concepts or negative concepts rather than a direct discussion of the real issue.
||"You should vote for Tom Green because he stands for Canadian values."
|Begging the question
||Loading the conclusion in the claim; assuming that something is true before it is proved
||"Everyone knows that our ineffective drug control program is a miserable failure."
||A sentence or argument that restates rather than proves
||"Prime Minister Trudeau was a well-read man because he was an intellectual."
||An oversimplification that reduces alternatives to only two choices, thereby creating a false dilemma
||"Either we ban boxing or hundreds of young men will be senselessly killed."
|Faulty comparison/False analogy
||Basing an argument on simplistic comparison of two things, ideas, events, or situations
||"Teaching kids about sex education is like letting them loose in a candy store."
||Arguing that the origins of a person, object, or institution determine its worth
||"He speaks with a funny German accent. He must be a Nazi."
||Conclusion is not justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence
||"Professor P. is a hard grader because he gave me a 36 on a biology test."
|Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
||Arguing that because Event B occurred after Event A, Event A caused Event B.
||"Because I forgot to leave my porch light on, someone robbed my house."
||Avoiding countering an opposing argument directly by introducing a non-issue to the argument
||"Equal pay for women is an important issue, but I wonder whether women really want to take the responsibility that comes with higher-paying jobs."
||Setting up an artificially easy argument to refute in place of the real issue
||"Although Ms. Jackson has been accused of misusing government funds, she has donated all of her income for the past three years to charity."